Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, Facts
What is Lyme disease – Lyme Disease Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Preventation
Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium, Borrelia burgdorffi, which is transmitted to humans through bites from infected black-legged or deer ticks. Symptoms can occur anywhere from 3 to 30 days after the bite and may be widespread depending on the stage of infection. In some cases, symptoms may appear months after the bite.
The CDC says that tick bites can cause you to have Lyme disease, it depends on the type of tick where you were. To spread Lyme disease, black-footed ticks should be attached to you for 36 to 48 hours. If you remove a tick or tick within 48 hours, you are unlikely to get infected, says Cleveland Clinic infectious disease specialist Alan Taage, MD.
What are the symptoms of Lyme disease?
Early signs and symptoms include fever, chills, headaches, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and swollen lymph nodes – all common in the flu. A rash is one of the first symptoms, says Aymott, with up to 80% of Lyme infections.
Without treatment, symptoms may progress. They may include:
Severe headache or stiff neck
Rash on other areas of the body
Arthritis with severe joint pain and swelling, especially in the knees
Loss of muscle tone or “dropping” on one or both sides of the face.
Heartbeat or irregular heartbeat
Brain and spinal cord inflammation
Shooting pain, numbness, or tingling in hand or fee
What does a rash look like?
About 20% to 30% of Lyme rashes have a “bull’s eye” appearance – concentric circles around a focal point – but most are round and evenly red and at least 5 cm (about 2 in) across. In, Aucott says.
“Most are red,” he says. “They don’t have a classic ring within a ring like a target logo.”
The CDC states that the rash spreads slowly and can grow up to about 12 inches. It can feel warm to the touch, but it rarely itches or is painful, and it can appear on any part of the body.
How small are ticks? Lyme Disease:
Vaccines come in three sizes, depending on their stage of life. The larvae are sand-shaped, poppy-shaped nymph, and adults the size of an apple seed.
How is Lyme disease diagnosed? Lyme Disease:
Doctors diagnose it based on symptoms and history of tick exposure. Two-stage blood tests are helpful if used properly. But the accuracy of the test depends on when you were infected. In the first few weeks of infection, the test may be negative, as antibodies take a few weeks to develop. Tests are not recommended for patients who do not have symptoms of Lyme disease.
Occott says the most promising developments in the fight against Lyme disease are better clinical trials that are accurate in the first few weeks after exposure. The earlier treatment, the less likely the disease will progress. Aucott says he hopes the tests will be available soon.
Doctors may not recognize the symptoms, especially those who practice in areas where limb infection is not prevalent, and up to 30% of infections are not accompanied by a rash.
What are the stages of Lyme infection?
There are three stages: Lyme Disease:
Early localized Lyme: Flu-like symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, and usually a rash that has a “bull-eye” appearance or is uniformly round and red and in shape. It is at least 5 cm.
Quick-spreading Lyme: Lyme Disease:
Flu-like symptoms, which now include pain, weakness, or numbness in hands and feet, changes in vision, heartbeat and chest pain, a rash, and facial paralysis (Bell’s palsy)
Late spread lime: This can occur weeks, months or years after the tick bite. Symptoms may include arthritis, severe fatigue and headaches, dizziness, sleep disturbances, and mental confusion.
While experts do not understand this, about 10% of people are not able to shake the disease for the treatment of Lyme infection. They may have three main symptoms – joint or muscle pain, fatigue, and short-term memory loss, or mental confusion. This is called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. It is considered controversial because its symptoms are shared with other diseases and there is no blood test to diagnose it, Okott says.
There are theories as to why Lyme symptoms become chronic. One is that the body continues to fight infection long after the bacteria have gone away, much like an autoimmune disorder.
How is Lyme disease treated?
Antibiotics are used to treat early-stage Lyme infection. Patients usually take doxycycline for 10 days to 3 weeks, or amoxicillin and cefuroxime for 2 to 3 weeks. In
In 90% of cases, the antibiotic cures the infection. If it does not, patients may receive other antibiotics either by mouth or intravenously.
For quickly spreading Lyme disease, which can occur when a Lyme infection becomes untreated, oral antibiotics are recommended for symptoms such as facial paralysis and abnormal heart rhythm. Intravenous antibiotics are recommended if a person has meningitis, inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, or more serious heart problems.
In late-stage Lyme, a patient may receive oral or intravenous antibiotics. Patients with sluggish arthritis will receive standard arthritis treatment.
Post-treatment There is no cure for Lyme disease syndrome. Lyme Disease Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Prevention
“Ten percent of people don’t get better after antibiotics,” Aucott says. “We think it’s very important if 30,000 people don’t get better in a year.”
Which areas are more likely? – Lyme Disease Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Prevention
The majority of Lime cases in 2018 (the latest year for which figures are available) were in 14 states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia West Virginia, And Wisconsin.
n 2018, Pennsylvania had the highest number of confirmed Lyme infection cases – 7,920 – followed by New Jersey with 2,876 cases.
In South America, which is more prone to hot weather, ticks tend to live under leaf litter and do not come in much to feed, Occott says – “ticks don’t like to dry.” This means that southern ticks do not transmit lime very often because they are not meant to feed humans.
Who is likely to get Lyme disease? – Lyme Disease Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Prevention
Infections are more common in men between the ages of 15 and 40 to 60, says Tagay. “They are people who are more likely to play outside, and go camping, hunting and hiking,” he says.
Aucott says the Lyme infection stops in older teens and their 20s “because they’re inside on their computers.” They say older adults have more time to work in their backyard, which is the most frequent Lyme infection.
What is tick expansion? – Lyme Disease Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Prevention
Scientists point to several reasons for the spread of Lyme infection. Redistribution of them, especially the Northeast U.S. In, where Lyme disease is more prevalent; Climate change and temperature extremes; Suburbanization; And greater exposure to white-tailed deer, which is the preferred mode of travel for black-footed ticks.
A tick in action.
CDC epidemiologist Paul Mead said the development recorded low numbers of deer in the last century. But the deer population has increased again as deforestation has occurred for several decades, meaning the tick population has grown and expanded as well.
“Ticks have a very long life cycle, last 2-3 years, and usually don’t go very far in their lifetime, so it takes a little time to see major changes,” he says.
Deer and white-footed rats, which transmit Lyme disease to bite them, are moving closer to humans as their habitat disappears, Taege says. Ticks don’t mind dogs, either, who take them into homes and spread them to their humans.
Another reason: Warmer weather and milder winters can bring out more people, increasing the likelihood of being bitten, especially in Lyme-prone areas, Taige says.
“Whether you believe in global warming or not, we have long hot summer months, and people are out more,” Taige says. “We have seen an expansion [of ticks] in the areas in which the vectors live, and we have gradually seen more Lyme disease.”
This does not mean that you should be afraid of outdoor activities as long as you take precautions to avoid tick bites.
What is the best way to stop tick bites?
Ticks cannot fly or jump, but instead, live in bushes and bushes, and catch someone when they pass by. To avoid cutting:
Wear pants and socks in the forest, handling areas with lots of trees and fallen leaves
Wear tick repellent on your skin and clothes that contain DEET, lemon oil or eucalyptus.
For even more protection, use chemical permethrin on clothing and camping gear.
If possible, take a bath within 2 hours after getting inside.
Look at your skin and wash your hair with tikis.
To kill any pests that may remain, put your clothes and any exposed gear in a hot dryer.
How do you know if you have been bitten?
Given that the ticks are the size of a poppy, you’ve got very good eyes. The CDC recommends that if you are working in the woods, on tall grass, or in the garden, check your skin later, ideally in a shower or bath. In this way, you have taken off your clothes, which can also last.
What do you do if you have a tick under your skin?
Remove it as quickly as possible with a pair of fine tweezers, pulling upward with constant pressure. If parts of the tick remain in the skin, try removing them with tweezers as well. After everything is out, clean the cutting area with rubbing alcohol or soap and water.
Mead says that if you remove the tick within 36 to 48 hours, you are unlikely to get infected.
Some people have an allergic reaction to ticks, so they will immediately notice a bite.
How do you dispose of a tick?
Put it in soapy water or alcohol, stick it on a piece of tape, or let it flow under the toilet.
When should you see a doctor if you suspect you have Lyme?
A rash is a very good sign that you may have been bitten. Take a picture of the rash and see your doctor, Okot says. At this stage of the disease, treatment with antibiotics will probably be successful.
If you do not have a telltale rash, but have a summer flu – fatigue, fever, headache, but no respiratory symptoms such as cough – you may want to talk to your doctor, says Okott.
Is there any progress on the Lyme disease vaccine?
In July 2017, the FDA granted “fast-track” approval to French biotech company Valeneva to test VLAA 15, a potential Lyme disease vaccine on adults in the US and Europe. The vaccine is currently in the second phase of development.
What if a tick bites my dog – Lyme Disease Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Preventation
The more ticks in your area, the better it is for your beloved pal to bring them home. Says Mead.
A dog owner looks for a tick on his pet.
Dogs are much more likely to bite ticks than humans, and where Lyme disease is more prevalent, up to 25% of dogs have evidence of past infection, he says.
“On the other hand, a lower rate of risk in dogs
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